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Technology Overview

Blue Planet’s new biomimetic carbon capture and mineralization technology utilizes several patented scientific breakthoughs.


Blue Planet uses it’s patented Liquid Condensed Phase (LCP™) Technology to convert CO2 into high-value CarbonMix™ building and highway materials.


Blue Planet is developing projects both at sources of carbon dioxide like industrial plants, and utilizing it’s carbon-sequestered aggregates in concrete projects.


Blue carbon is captured naturally by marine ecosystems to build coral reefs. Blue Planet uses a similar mineralization process to convert CO2 into carbon negative building materials.


Unique, Efficient & Low-cost Carbon Capture Method

Blue Planet’s technology uses CO2 as a raw material for making carbonate rocks. The carbonate rocks produced are used in place of natural limestone rock mined from quarries, which is the principal component of concrete. CO2 from flue gas is converted to carbonate (or CO3=) by contacting CO2 containing gas with a water-based capture solutions. This differentiates Blue Planet from most CO2 capture methods because the captured CO2 does not require a purification step, which is an energy and capital intensive process. As a result Blue Planet’s capture method is extremely efficient, and results in a lower cost than traditional methods of CO2 capture.

How it Works: Process Flow

Synthetic Limestone Coating

The carbonated solutions formed from the captured CO2 are used to form a carbonate mineral coating over a nucleus or substrate. The carbonate minerals form a synthetic limestone coating. This permanently sequesters the captured CO2 as CO3= in the carbonate minerals comprising the limestone coating. The aggregate can be produced in different sizes, ranging from sand-sized to gravel-sized.

To reform our capture solution, it is exposed to a “Geomass”  which is our term for common rock waste and/or industrial waste materials that contain available alkalinity, which recharges the capture solution, and metal ions such as calcium, magnesium, and iron.  When the “spent” capture solution reacts with the Geomass, reforming it, these metal ions are released and combined with the carbonate solution to form the carbonate mineral coating.

Blue Planet Process is Similar to Ooid Formation in Nature

A rock particle is coated with our synthetic limestone, forming a carbon-sequestering coating that is 44% by mass CO2.The coating can contain residual fine particles from the capture solution regeneration.

44% (by mass) of CaCO3 Coating is CO2



Blue Planet carbon sequestration plants produce coarse and fine aggregate concrete. Made from sequestered CO2 utilizing the carbon mineralization process, the use of Blue Planet aggregate is the most effective way to achieve carbon neutral and carbon negative concrete. Standard concrete, by comparison, typically comprises the largest CO2 footprint in a building or infrastructure project.

Remediated Concrete Aggregate (RCA)

RCA is a by-product of demolished and returned concrete that has been through a calcium extraction process for Blue Planet’s carbon dioxide sequestered limestone. This aggregate is useful in most concrete mixes and harder and more well indurated than typical virgin aggregates due to the uniform process in Blue Planet’s reformation step.

Limestone-coated RCA

The coating consists of synthetic limestone [CaCO3] crystallized on the surface of the RCA, giving it a smoothened surface finish. Each ton Carbon dioxide-sequestered limestone contains 440 kilograms of carbon dioxide trapped and prevented from accumulating in the atmosphere.


CO2 Capture

Blue Planet’s carbon capture and mineralization technology offers CO2 capture as an emissions control service to address existing and future CO2 cap-and-trade programs at state, federal and international levels.

Criteria Pollutant Removal

Of the U.S. EPA’s six criteria pollutants, which include ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and lead, Blue Planet’s carbon capture and mineralization technology will remove SO2 and lead. Under some circumstances, particulate matter may also be removed at specific sites equipped with the mineralization technology.

Water Management

Blue Planet uses three water inputs in its carbon capture and mineralization technology: (i) salty water, (ii) relatively less salty water and (iii) hard water. With pre-treatment, any combination of these waters may be obtained from the same input source, for example, produced waters at industrial sites. Once dissolved ions are consumed in the process, the treated water can be considered nearly potable.

Emitter Projects (Coal, Gas, Cement, Refinery)

Blue Planet is currently interviewing candidates for project demonstration. Potential sites include electricity generating stations powered by coal or natural gas, cement plants, petroleum and/or biofuel refineries.


Magnitude of CO2 Sequestered Aggregate Impact

Approximately 50 billion tons (50 Gigatons) of rock is mined every year worldwide for use in concrete, asphalt, and road base. This market is growing at a rate around 8% per year. 70% of the aggregate used in concrete is already limestone. Limestone (CaCO3) is 44% by mass CO2. Every ton of limestone contains 440 Kg of CO2, now transformed in CO3 (carbonate) in a crystalline state. 50 billion tons for limestone contains 22 billion tons of CO2.

Balance of Aggregate Demand and Anthropogenic CO2

We believe human (anthropogenic) contributions to Earth’s atmospheric CO2 levels is about 35 billion (35 Gigatones) per annum, and growing. More than half of this CO2 (22 billon tons) could be consumed from the production of limestone aggregate used in place of the currently mined mined aggregate. This approach would also save enormous transportation costs and carbon footprint.

Government Procurement Power

Most aggregate on a worldwide basis is purchased by governments, or for government funded projects. Governments have the power of procurement preference, to specify aggregate in the construction project they pay for and could specify carbon-sequestered rock in their project, provide what is perhaps the strongest lever governments world-wide have to remove CO2 from emissions sources before it enters Earth’s atmosphere. This approach is truly global because both rich and poor countries purchase rock by funding infrastructure projects every year, so it it not a means of curtailing atmospheric CO2 that only rich nations can affect.

Existing Infrastructure

Creating aggregate from CO2 is one of the few highly impactful, globally sustainable, means to significantly address climate change, for a new infrastructure is not require. The transportation and product delivery infrastructure for delivering Blue Planet’s carbon sequestered aggregate is already in place in every country and every site in the world producing concrete, asphalt, and road base.

Circular Economy and Concrete Upcycling

On a mass basis, concrete is far and away the most recycled material on Earth. Typically if it is not landfilled, it is broken up and recycled for a low value use such as road base. When broken up concrete for recycling is subject to Blue Planets’ process as a means of obtaining calcium and alkalinity. The remaining by-product is the original sand and gravel used in the concrete, except that it is denuded of the weakened powdery parts of the material which normal require that it only be used in low value minor applications. Instead, it is now upcycled with equivalence or superiority of regular recycled concrete.

Comparative CO2 Capture Process

Blue Planet converts CO2 to CO3 after capture, and at no point purifies the CO2. This sets Blue Planet apart from any other CO2 capture process, where the goal is to concentrate the CO2 in to a pure form that can be pressurized and liquefied for handling, such as in geological sequestration. Purification requires very large amounts of energy, taking away from the net reduction of CO2 objective – a penalty the Blue Planet doesn’t have to pay.

CarbonStar Embodied Energy Rating System

Blue Planet’s Government Affairs team is working with global leaders in the green building industry to develop a simple way to communicate the carbon footprint associated with concrete. The CarbonStar rating is a metric based on the embodied mass of CO2 in a unit of concrete. Of the three components in concrete – water, cement and aggregate – cement is by far the most significant contributor to CO2 emissions – roughly 1:1 by mass (1 ton cement produces roughly 1 ton CO2). If a cubic yard of concrete uses 600 lbs of cement, its CarbonStar rating is 600. The idea is to get the CarbonStar rating as low (or negative) as possible. One approach to lowering the CarbonStar rating for a cubic yard of concrete is to replace traditional aggregate with Blue Planet aggregate. The difference being that Blue Planet aggregate contains sequestered CO2, which when used in place of traditional aggregate, reduces CO2.

©2015 Blue Planet, Ltd.